X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive technique based on the photoelectric effect used to identify a material’s elemental composition and chemical state. Widely used throughout materials science, XPS, also known as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), requires high vacuum conditions. Developments in near-ambient-pressure XPS (NAP-XPS) have led to investigations of surfaces under more “real-world conditions”, such as in the presence of gases and liquids.
Ion beams are beneficial additions to XPS instruments. It is challenging to keep surfaces perfectly clean, and an ion beam can clean samples before analysis and provide additional depth profiling capabilities. Beams such as C60 are great for many applications, while the emergence of NAP XPS requires a softer beam, for which the GCIB is ideally suited.
Explore XPS applications of our ion beams below.
XPS data showing the PET C 1s peaks before and after etching with a monatomic argon beam and a gas cluster ion beam.
|Characterization of buried interfaces using Ga K? hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES)
|BF Spencer, SA Church, P Thompson, DJH Cant, S Maniyarasu, A Theodosiou, AN Jones, MJ Kappers, DJ Binks, RA Oliver, J Higgins, AG Thomas, T Thomson, AG Shard, WR Flavell
|In-depth analysis of iodine in artificial biofilm model layers by variable excitation energy XPS and argon gas cluster ion sputtering XPS
|PM Dietrich, M Kjærvik, E Willneff, WES Unger
|Depth resolution at organic interfaces sputtered by argon gas cluster ions: the effect of energy, angle and cluster size
|MP Seah, SJ Spencer, R Havelund, IS Gilmore, AG Shard
|Depth profiling, XPS
|Analysis of protein coatings on gold nanoparticles by XPS and liquid-based particle sizing techniques
|NA Belsey, AG Shard, C Minelli